Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Objective: To describe the regional and population-related differences in skeletal muscle mass and handgrip strength across the 10 regions of China. Methods: 24 533 participants aged 38-88 years from the second resurvey of China Kadoorie Biobank were included in our analyses. Appendicular and trunk skeletal muscle mass were assessed using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (TANITA). Handgrip strength was measured using Jamar hand-held dynamometer. Low muscle mass and low muscle strength were defined as the lowest quintile of height-adjusted appendicular muscle mass or handgrip strength according to the Consensus Report of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. We analyzed the mean value of absolute muscle mass, height-adjusted muscle mass, weight-adjusted muscle mass and handgrip strength. We also reported the prevalence of low muscle mass and low muscle strength. Results: The average appendicular and total skeletal muscle mass were (22.0±0.02) kg and (49.7±0.05) kg in men, which were higher than in women [(15.9±0.02) kg and (37.2±0.04) kg, respectively]. The handgrip strength was (32.6±0.06) kg in men, which was higher than (19.9±0.05) kg in women. The absolute muscle mass was higher in north area and urban region (P<0.001). The weight-adjusted muscle mass showed reverse patterns of regional difference compared with height-adjusted muscle mass. Both muscle mass and handgrip strength decreased by age (trend P<0.001), with a larger decline observed in handgrip strength. According to AWGS criteria, the proportions of low muscle mass and strength increased by age. Among participants over 80 years old, the prevalence of low muscle mass and strength were 56.2% and 74.5% in men, and 35.7% and 66.0% in women. Conclusions: Levels of skeletal muscle mass and strength varied greatly among people from 10 regions and among participants with different demographic characteristics. The prevalence of low muscle mass and strength was extremely high in elderly.

Original publication




Journal article


Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi

Publication Date





376 - 381


Bioelectrical impedance analysis, Handgrip strength, Skeletal muscle mass, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Body Weight, China, Female, Hand Strength, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Muscle, Skeletal, Sarcopenia