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Mathematical models of cardiac cellular electrophysiology have matured and evolved over the last 50 years. They have played an important role in shaping our understanding of physiology through iterations with experiments. A large scientific community in computational cardiovascular science has contributed to developing cardiac models of different cell types and species, including human, which have proven to be useful in a large number of scientific studies. The present article provides an overview of the state-of-the-art in cardiac modeling, with a particular focus on human electrophysiology, as well as recent developments in modeling variability and multiscale whole organ simulations of the human heart.

Original publication





Book title

Encyclopedia of Cell Biology: Volume 1-6, Second Edition

Publication Date





261 - 269